Sablon:it-IPA

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Introduction[szerkesztés]

Invokes Module:it-pronunciation, which generates phonemic IPA transcriptions of Italian terms. It should eventually include phonetic transcriptions.

In normal usage, the first parameter specifies a respelling of the term with appropriate accents to indicate the position of the stress and the quality of the stressed vowel. For example, the word cento should be respelled as {{it-IPA|cènto}} to indicate that the e is stressed and is pronounced as low-mid /ɛ/, while the word mente should be respelled as {{it-IPA|ménte}} to indicate that the first e is stressed and is pronounced as high-mid /e/. Similarly, ò indicates low-mid /ɔ/, while ó indicates high-mid /o/. The vowels a i u should always be marked with a grave accent, i.e. à ì ù, consistent with standard Italian spelling rules.

In some cases, the respelling will include other changes than simply marking the stressed vowel and its quality. For example:

  • Any z or zz occurring in a word, unless in a recognized suffix, must be explicitly respelled either ts, tts, dz or ddz to indicate its pronunciation, e.g. {{it-IPA|ragàttsa}} for ragazza and {{it-IPA|dzandzàra}} for zanzara. (It is preferred to use ts and dz to respell a single z, and tts and ddz to respell a double zz. However, both the single and double spellings result in equivalent pronunciations, since z is always pronounced doubled between vowels.)
  • A hiatus between an unstressed i or u and an adjacent vowel, i.e. a case where the i or u is pronounced in a separate syllable from the adjacent vowel, must be indicated explicitly by placing a . between the vowels, e.g. {{it-IPA|bi.ologìa}} for biologia.
  • A written s between vowels that is pronounced as /s/ instead of /z/ must be respelled as [s], e.g. {{it-IPA|sta[s]éra}} for stasera.
  • Foreign words will need appropriate respelling using Italian spelling rules, e.g. {{it-IPA|rulèt}} for roulette.

See #Special pronunciation symbols below for the full respelling rules.

Parameters[szerkesztés]

|1=, |2=, ...
One or more respellings of the term. This can be omitted in some cases, specifically if all words in the term meet one of the following conditions:
  1. the stress is explicitly indicated in the page name, e.g. università; or
  2. the word has one or two vowels in it and has a, i or u as the stressed vowel, e.g. canna; or
  3. the word ends in a recognized suffix, e.g. nazione (ending in -zione), socialista (ending in -ista) or favorevole (ending in -evole); or
  4. the word is a prefix (i.e. ends in a hyphen).
|qual=, |qual2=, ...
Specify a qualifier for a respelling. |qual= corresponds to |1=, |qual2= corresponds to |2=, etc.
|ref=, |ref2=, ...
Specify one or more reference footnotes for a respelling. |ref= corresponds to |1=, |ref2= corresponds to |2=, etc. The footnote superscript appears directly after the corresponding pronunciation. If you specify this, you should include a ===References=== section with <references /> in it. To specify multiple footnotes for a single respelling, separate them with  !!! (with or without spaces). To specify a name for a given footnote, use <<name:NAME>> directly after the footnote text, as if <ref name="NAME">...</ref> were used, and to use a previously named footnote a second time, use only <<name:NAME>> with an empty footnote text, as if <ref name="NAME" /> were used. See {{IPA}} for more information on the syntax of the |ref= argument.

Special pronunciation symbols[szerkesztés]

Within a term[szerkesztés]

  • Use ^ followed by a stressed vowel by itself, e.g. or , to indicate the vowel stress and quality, based on the page name. This only works if the penultimate (second-from-last) and antepenultimate (third-from-last) vowel are different.
  • Use * at the end of a word to indicate syntactic gemination (raddoppiamento sintattico) of the initial consonant of the following word. See #Syntactic gemination below for more information.
  • Use . to force a syllable division that would not normally occur or would normally occur in a different place, e.g. biologico respelled bi.ològico or outsider respelled àut.sàider.
  • Use [z] to represent /z/ other than between vowels or before a voiced consonant, e.g. jazz respelled già[z] and giè[z] to represent the two possible pronunciations, or blues respelled blùz.
  • Use [s] to represent /s/ between vowels or before a voiced consonant, e.g. stasera respelled sta[s]éra or postbellico respelled pò[s]bèllico (one possible pronunciation).
  • Use [tʃ] to represent /t͡ʃ/ other than before a vowel, e.g. kitsch respelled kì[tʃ].
  • Use [dʒ] to represent /d͡ʒ/ other than before a vowel, e.g. backstage respelled bẹ̀ckstéi[dʒ]. (See below for ẹ̀.)
  • Use [h] to represent a pronounced /h/, e.g. beh respelled bè[h] (one possible pronunciation).
  • Use [x] to represent the sound /x/.
  • To represent sounds like /ʃ/ or /ɲ/ other than before vowels, or to represent foreign sounds like /ʒ/ /ʀ/ /ŋ/ /ʔ/, just include the IPA symbol directly. (You can also use sh to represent /ʃ/ in any position.)
  • Use _ to block assimilations that would normally occur, such as written n being pronounced as /m/ before labials, as well as the special interpretation of digraphs, such as written gl being pronounced as /ʎ/ before i or written ts being interpreted as a single sound . You can also use h for this purpose, but beware that sh represents /ʃ/ rather than preventing assimilation of s to /z/ before vowels or voiced consonants.
  • Use an underdot to indicate an explicitly unstressed syllable in connection with è and ò: ẹ̀, ọ̀, e.g. cameraman respelled càmeramẹ̀n.
  • Use an overdot to indicate that the entire word is unstressed, e.g. with the third person plural suffix -ano respelled -ȧno.
  • If there are multiple stresses in a word, all but the last will be converted to secondary stress. To indicate secondary stress in some other position (e.g. after the primary stress), use a combining underscore: à̱ è̱ é̱ ì̱ ò̱ ó̱ ù̱, e.g. Königsberg respelled Kö̀nigsbè̱rg .
  • Use ö to represent French or German /ø/, e.g. feuilleton respelled föitón and Göteborg respelled Gö̀tebọ̀rg.
  • Use ü to represent French or German /y/, e.g. ouverture respelled uvertǜr.

Specifying usage[szerkesztés]

  • Use a # at the beginning of a respelling to indicate a traditional but no longer preferred pronunciation, such as any word ending in -oso, traditionally respelled ó[s]o /oso/ but in modern pronunciation respelled óso /ozo/.
  • Use a ! at the beginning of a respelling to indicate a careful pronunciation (often one that attempts to imitate a foreign pronunciation), such as /asˈsist/ for assist in place of normal /ˈassist/, or /ˈnuoro/ for Nuoro in place of normal /ˈnwɔro/. This can be combined with # to indicate a pronunciation that is both traditional and careful-style.
  • Use a !! at the beginning of a respelling to indicate an elevated-style pronunciation (one that can be used only in highly formal circumstances), such as /aˈrɛm/ for harem in place of normal /ˈarem/. This can be combined with # to indicate a pronunciation that is both traditional and elevated-style.

Syntactic gemination[szerkesztés]

Cogemination with a term:

  • Use a * at the end of a word in the middle of a term to indicate that cogemination of a following initial consonant occurs. This is the phenomenon traditionally known as syntactic gemination (in Italian, raddoppiamento sintattico or raddoppiamento fonosintattico). This is displayed by doubling the following consonant and inserting a between the words. For example, to represent the pronunciation of va bene, write {{it-IPA|va* bène}}, which displays as
  • IPA: /va*ˈ bɛ.ne/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (*)

Term-final cogemination:

  • Use a * at the end of a term ending in a vowel to indicate that cogemination of a following initial consonant occurs. This is the phenomenon traditionally known as syntactic gemination (in Italian, raddoppiamento sintattico or raddoppiamento fonosintattico). This causes a superscript * to be displayed after the term, with an explanatory tooltip. Note that this symbol appears automatically after multisyllabic words ending in a stressed vowel (unless the term is marked using ** or °), so it only needs to be indicated explicitly in monosyllabic words and in words ending in an unstressed vowel that trigger syntactic gemination, e.g. come.
  • Use a ** at the end of a term ending in a vowel (e.g. cliché) to indicate that cogemination of a following initial consonant occurs optionally.
  • Use a ° at the end of a term ending in a vowel to indicate that cogemination of a following initial consonant does not occur. This causes a superscript ° to be displayed after the term, with an explanatory tooltip. Lack of cogemination is considered the default, so this symbol does not normally need to be included. However, it can be included to make it explicit that cogemination does not occur. This is used, for example, in dove, where cogemination does occur in traditional pronunciation but not in modern pronunciation. This is specified using {{it-IPA|dóve°|#dóve*}}, which displays as
  • IPA: /ˈdo.ve°/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (°), /ˈ#do.ve*/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (#*)

Term-final self-gemination:

  • Use a * at the end of a term ending in a consonant to indicate that self-gemination of this consonant before a following initial vowel occurs. This causes a superscript * to be displayed after the term, with an explanatory tooltip. Note that this symbol appears automatically after words ending in one of the consonants /d͡z t͡s ʃ ɲ ʎ/ (unless the term is marked using ** or °), so it only needs to be indicated explicitly in other cases.
  • Use a ** at the end of a term ending in a consonant (e.g. sud) to indicate that self-gemination of this consonant before a following initial vowel occurs optionally.
  • Use a ° at the end of a term ending in a consonant to indicate that self-gemination of this consonant before a following initial vowel does not occur.

Term-initial cogemination and self-gemination:

  • Use a * at the beginning of a term that begins in a consonant to indicate that self-gemination of this consonant after a preceding initial vowel occurs. This causes a superscript * to be displayed before the term, with an explanatory tooltip. Note that this symbol appears automatically before words beginning in one of the consonants /d͡z t͡s ʃ ɲ ʎ/ (unless the term is marked using **, ° or °°), so it only needs to be indicated explicitly in other cases, such as in the traditional pronunciation of dio.
  • Use a ** at the beginning of a term that begins in a consonant to indicate that self-gemination of this consonant after a preceding initial vowel occurs optionally.
  • Use a ° at the beginning of a term that begins in a consonant to indicate that this term actively blocks cogemination of this consonant in a context where it would normally occur (e.g. after a word ending in a stressed vowel). Examples of this are clitics such as me and ne as well as definite articles and the preposition di.
  • Use a °° at the beginning of a term that begins in a consonant to indicate that this term optionally blocks cogemination of this consonant in a context where it would normally occur (e.g. after a word ending in a stressed vowel).

Unstressed words[szerkesztés]

The following single-syllable words are automatically treated as unstressed unless explicitly marked with an acute or grave accent:

Prefixes and suffixes[szerkesztés]

Prefixes (words ending in a hyphen) are always treated as lacking primary stress. Any stressed vowels are given secondary stress.

Recognized suffixes[szerkesztés]

  • -àbile/-ìbile
  • -àcchio
  • -àccia/-àccio
  • -àggine/-ìggine/-ùggine
  • -àglia/-àglio
  • -àia/-àio
  • -àndo/-èndo
  • -ànico/-ènico/-ìnico/-ònico/-ùnico
  • -ànte
  • -anza, -enza-àntsa/-èntsa
  • -àre/-àrsi
  • -àrio
  • -àstica/-àstico/-ìstica/-ìstico
  • -àstra/-àstro
  • -àtica/-àtico/-ètica/-ètico
  • -àto/-àta
  • -èlla/-èllo
  • -ènse
  • -ènte (but -ménte)
  • -ènto (but -ménto)
  • -ésca/-ésco
  • -étta
  • -ezza-éttsa
  • -évole
  • -fìcio
  • -iàna/-iàno
  • -izzatrice-iddzatrìce
  • -izzazione-iddzatsióne
  • -izzatore-iddzatóre
  • -izzando-iddzàndo
  • -izzante-iddzànte
  • -izzare/-izzarsi-iddzàre/-iddzàrsi
  • -ièra/-ièro
  • -ìfero
  • -ìglia/-ìglio
  • -ìre/-ìrsi
  • -ìsmo
  • -ìsta
  • -ìva/-ìvo
  • -izia/-izio-ìtsia/-ìtsio
  • -logìa
  • -ménte
  • -ménto
  • -òide
  • -óne
  • -óso
  • -sòrio/-tòrio
  • -sóre/-tóre
  • -trìce
  • -tùdine
  • -ùra
  • -ùro when not directly following a vowel (as in e.g. centauro)
  • -zione-tsióne

Examples[szerkesztés]

Page Wikitext Output Notes
migliore {{it-IPA|miglióre}} IPA: /miʎˈʎo.re/ Indicate the quality and stress.
direzione {{it-IPA}} IPA: /itˈi.pa/ Suffix -zione is a recognized suffix and no hiatus or other z occurs, so respelling can be omitted.
ragazza {{it-IPA|ragàttsa}} IPA: /raˈɡat.tsa/ Indicate the stress and nature of zz.
forza {{it-IPA|fòrtsa}} IPA: /ˈfɔr.tsa/ Indicate the quality, stress and nature of z.
bene {{it-IPA|bène}} IPA: /ˈbɛ.ne/
zanzara {{it-IPA|dzanzàra}} IPA: /dt͡sanˈdt͡sa.ra/
club {{it-IPA|clab|clèb}} IPA: /klab/, /ˈklɛb/ Two possible pronunciations and respellings; stress not needed in monosyllabic words with stressed vowel a i u.
stasera {{it-IPA|sta[s]éra}} IPA: /sta[ˈs]e.ra/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek ([]) Use [s] to indicate /s/ between vowels.
astronauta {{it-IPA|^à}} IPA: /ˈ^a/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (^) Just specify the stressed vowel.
va bene {{it-IPA|va* bène}} IPA: /va*ˈ bɛ.ne/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (*) Use * to indicate syntactic gemination.
chiuso {{it-IPA|chiùso|#chiù[s]o}} IPA: /ˈkju.zo/, /ˈ#kju[.s]o/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (#[]) Use # to indicate a traditional pronunciation.
biologia {{it-IPA|bi.ologia}} IPA: /bi..oˈlo.d͡ʒa/ Use . to mark a hiatus. Stressed syllable doesn't need to be marked because -logia is a recognized suffix.
mezzacartuccia {{it-IPA|mèddzacartùccia}} IPA: /ˈmɛd.dt͡sa.karˈtut.t͡ʃa/ If more than one stress, all but the last become secondary stress.
vivisezionare {{it-IPA|vìvi[s]etsionàre}} IPA: /ˈvi.vi[.s]et.sjoˈna.re/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek ([]) Secondary stress, /s/ between vowels, indicate nature of z.
xero- {{it-IPA|xèro-}} IPA: /ˈksɛ.ro/ Primary stress converted to secondary stress in a prefix.
Königsberg {{it-IPA|Kö̀nigsbè̱rg}} IPA: /kö.̀niɡ.zbè̱rɡ/ érvénytelen IPA-karakterek (̱) A more complicated example with German ö and secondary stress on the following vowel.

For more, see Module:it-pronunciation/testcases.