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Arabic loan words[szerkesztés]

Despite the expulsion of numerous Arabic words, Turkish still has a substential number of Arabic loan words that are used in the language today. However, some words have gone through phonetic changes in Turkish in order to accomodate the vowel harmony.


  • Some Arabic loan words are:
Word in Arabic Word in Turkish English meaning Remarks
marhabā merhaba hello
sīfr sıfır zero
zāmān zaman time
kitāb kitap book
tesellī teselli condolence
beyāz beyaz white the Turkish word ak is also used, but not as often as [[beyaz.
tehluke tehlike danger
tehdid tehdit menace
tacīz taciz harass
nufūs nüfus population
mezār mezar grave
cenāze cenaze funeral
miza:h mizah humor
mute:ahhid müteahhit contractor the new suggested Turkish word is üstenci, but this word is seldom used.
resmī resmi formal
ciddī ciddi serious
kināye kinaye sarcasm
iltifāt iltifat compliment
iltihāb iltihap infection
fikra fıkra anectode
iflās iflâs bankruptcy
ikrām ikram offer, give especially used when offering guests something to eat as courtesy
itirāf itiraf admit
itibār itibar impression
iftirā iftira blame especially used when blaming someone else for what the person has done.
fāre fare mouse
fark fark difference
hazīne hazine treasure
hāzīr hazır ready
hayvān hayvan animal
derece derece degree
hafif hafif light (the opposite of heavy)
mevsim mevsim season
temyīz temiz clean the word temyiz is also used in Turkish, but in the meaning of objection to a court's decision
temsīl temsil represent
dikkat dikkat caution
cezā ceza punishment
cevz ceviz walnut
cumhūriyyet cumhuriyet republic
fazla fazla many, too
hīle hile cheat
lezzet lezzet taste
dāire daire circle
fahişe fahişe whore
hevāa hava air
sāhīfe sayfa page in Arabic, sāhīfe ("pages") is the plural of sūhūf, meaning "page." In Turkish sayfa is used as singular.
iknā ikna persuade
sufre sofra (laid) table (to eat)
iāde iade return
resm resim picture, painting
sākin sakin calm
kirmizi kırmızı red the Turkish word al is also used, but rarely
lutfen lütfen please
matbah mutfak kitchen
tecāvuz tecavüz rape
merkez merkez center
merāk merak curiousity also means "being interested in"
masdar mastar infinitive form of verb
manzara manzara scenery
mādde madde material
mācerā macera adventure
hisāb hesap calculation
hikāaye hikâye story
mendīl mendil kerchief
meşgūl meşgul busy
ders ders lesson
hakāret hakaret insult
kūfr küfür swear, curse
abdāl aptal stupid
zevk zevk pleasure
zaif zayıf thin (used for persons)
zevāl zaval'''lı''' pathetic(adj) in Turkish the suffix -lı]] is used to derive adjectives from nouns
zarf zarf envelope
zekā zekâ intelligence
zekī zeki smart, intelligent
zarār zarar loss, damage
sāniye saniye second (as in time)
sanāayi sanayi industry
san:at sanat art
zātu'r-rie zatürre pneunomia
tāc taç crown
inşāāt inşaat construction
irk ırk ethnicity
intihār intihar suicade
redd ret reject
kabūl kabul accept
itirāz itiraz objection
insān insan human
muhendis mühendis engineer
sikāyet şikâyet complain
işgāl işgal occupy (a country as in a war)
itfāiyye itfaiye fire station

Replaced old words[szerkesztés]

Here are some examples of the old (Arabic origin) words with their new Turkish equivalents:

Old word New Turkish word English meaning Remarks
muharebe, harp, cenk '***' savaş war
sulh barış piece
imkân '*' olanak opportunity, possibility
şimal kuzey north
kıble güney south
şark doğu east
garp batı west
meridyen* boylam longtitude the old word is French origin
paralel* enlem latitude the old word is French origin
Teşrini Evvel Ekim October
Teşrini Sani [[Kasım November
Kanuni Evvel Aralık December
Kanuni Sani Ocak January
tayyare uçak airplane
lûgat sözlük dictionary
kelime '*' sözcük word
lâtife şaka joke
lüzum '*' gerek necessary
evrak '*' belge paper document in Arabic, evrāk is the plural of vārāk, in Turkish evrak is used as singular
tebdil değişiklik change
teadül denklik equivalence
teamül tepkime, davranış reaction, behavior
muvaffakiyet başarı success
nikâh '*' düğün wedding
nispet oran ratio
tasvir betimleme description
lisan dil language
zor*,***, müşkül çetin** difficult
hücum '*' saldırı attack
müsvedde taslak draft
misal örnek example
misafir '*' konuk guest
hediye '*' armağan gift
vazife '*' görev task, mission
mütehassıs uzman expert
müteferrik dağınık untidy
müsabaka karşılaşma match
mecbur '*' zorunlu must, obligation both the new and the old words can be used as noun or adjective
husus konu subject
iptidaî ilkel primitive
hâkim '*' yargıç judge
zamir '*' adıl '**' pronoun
hakikat gerçek reality
hafıza '*' bellek '**' memory
hadım kısır impotent
hikmet sebep reason
hilâf karşıt opposite
güzide '***' seçkin elite
mâni engel obstacle
sıhhat sağlık health
mütalâa düşünce thought
iftihar övünme praisal
isim '*' ad name
ihtiyat yedek backup This word has other meanings in Turkish, which are sometimes used in the language
fiil '*' eylem verb
muhteviyat içindekiler ingredients
ilham* esin inspiration
talebe öğrenci student
hoca '*' öğretmen teacher
reis başkan president
tabiat '*' doğa nature
mübalağa abartma exaggeration
kâinat evren universe
mesut mutlu happy
mevkiî, mekân yer, konum location
sohbet* söyleşi chat the new word is used in somewhat different contexts
tembih* uyarı warning
tebrik* kutlama congratulate the new word also means to [[celebrate
tecelli belirme emerge
istisna aykırı exception
tavsiye* öneri suggestion
telâş* tasa,kaygı worry
tekâmül evrim, başkalaşım maturation, metamorphosis
tekaüt emekli retired
maaş * aylık ** salary
masraf* gider cost
meydan*, saha alan** open area while the new word is used mainly in mathematics (as in area of a triangle), it is seldom used in the same meanings of the old words.
meyil eğim slant
meyil eğilim tendency
ebedî sonsuz forever
meşhur * ünlü famous
ecel ölüm death
ecdat ata ancestry
nasihat öğüt advice, counsel
netice sonuç result
miskin uyuşuk supine
müzmin süreğen cronic the new word is seldom used
tembel *,*** haylaz lazy
nefes* soluk breath
müdahale* karışma intervention
müdafaâ koruma sustain, protect
münasebet* ilişki relation
nihayet * son(unda) final(ly)
nağme ezgi melody
evvel önce before
tamir*, tadilat* onarım renovation
hayat*, ömür* yaşam life
müsamaâ hoşgörü tolerance
vakâ olay event
muhakkak* kesin(likle) certain(ly)
mutedil ılım(lı) moderate(ly)
bariz* kesin,belli obvious
tecrübe * deneyim experience
irtifa yükseklik altitude the old word is only used in aviation, as in "the altitude of the plane"
müsaade izin permission
çehre yüz face
şatafat(lı) gösteriş(li) spectacular (noun and adjective)
kafiye uyak rhyme
gayri olmayan,başka non-, other in Arabic, "gayri" is a prefix which means non- as in "he is a non-muslim"; "he is not a muslim"
tasdik onay approve
mevhum kavram concept
tabir, ifade* deyiş** narration
kısım bölüm part
nafile boşuna futile
meşrubat içecek beverage
kifayet yeter enough

(* Old words that are still used in modern Turkish together with their new Turkish words.)

(** Words that are not as frequently used as the old words.)

(*** Old words that are Persian origin.)


Persian loan words[szerkesztés]

  • Though not as many as Arabic, Turkish still has a large number of Persian loan words. Some are:
Word in Persian Word in Turkish English meaning Remarks
kūr kör blind
pervāne pervane propeller
perde perde curtain
perçīn perçin rivet, clinch bolt
bāzār [[pazar [[ sunday, bazaar
bādingān patlıcan eggplant the original word is Persian, but Turkish borrowed this word through Arabic
raspi orospu whore
penjerd pezevenk pimp
bādām badem almond
pūl pul stamp
but put statue
āheng ahenk harmony
bād-ı hevā bedava free
gireç kireç lime
hefte hafta week
haste hasta sick
haste-hāne hastane hospital
āteş ateş fire
horūs horoz cock, rooster
hīç hiç nothing, never
bahār bahar spring 'spring' and 'fall' in Turkish are rather expressed by the compound words ilk'''bahar''' and son'''bahar''', the word ilk meaning 'first', the word son meaning [['last
legleg leylek stork
gūşe köşe corner
kūy köy village
gūnah günah sin
şobān çoban shepherd
cuft çift double, couple
cevān-merd cömert generous
çenber çember circle
çengāl çengel hook
kulāh külah cone
kūşk köşk small palace
siyāh siyah black the word kara is also used, but not as often
çāp-ū-rāst çapraz cross, across
cāme-şūy çamaşır laundry
çāre çare solution
çāder-i şeb çarşaf linen
çār-sū çarşı mall
Çār-şenbe Çarşamba Wednesday
Pencşenbe Perşembe Thursday
panbuk pamuk cotton
pārçe parça piece
pence pençe paw
pencere pencere window
penbe pembe pink
perişān perişan pitiful, pathetic
kār kâr profit
nerdubān merdiven staircase
servān serüven adventure
reng renk color
muhr mühür seal, signet
zēhr zehir poison
mujde müjde good news
şeker şeker sugar

French loan words[szerkesztés]

  • Turkish, like many other Indo-European languages, has also borrowed significant number of words from French. Note that most of the words are similar to English. Some French loan words are:
Word in French Word in Turkish English meaning Remarks
abonné abone subscriber
Allemand Alman German
amphithéâtre amfi amphitheater in Turkish only the abbreviated form is used
amibe amip ameba
analyse analiz analyze
bouquet buket bouquet
équipe ekip team the Turkish word takım is also used, but in different contexts
Briscambille iskambil card deck
liqueur likör liquor
stagiaire stajer intern
stage staj internship
chantage şantaj blackmail
chance şans luck, chance
dactylo daktilo typewriter
rendez-vous randevu appointment
portrait portre portrait
autobus otobüs bus
automatique otomatik automatic
cravate kravat tie
télégraphe telgraf telegraph
télévision televizyon television
téléphone telefon telephone
visa vize visa
virage viraj curve, bend (in a road)
tourisme turizm tourism
plage plâj beach
pièce piyes play (theater)
élastique lastik rubber
caricature karikatür caricature
manchette manşet headlines
lycée lise high school
camion kamyon truck